Dense gas detected in intercore bridges in the S235 starforming region

first_img Explore further Evolution of magnetic field in the star-forming complex G9.62+0.19 revealed by ALMA More information: NH3 Observations of the S235 Star Forming Region: Dense Gas in Inter-core Bridges, arXiv:1908.00954. arxiv.org/pdf/1908.00954.pdf This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The first and second moment maps of ammonia in S235 and S235AB, shown left and right, respectively. Image credit: Burns et al., 2019. It is assumed that star formation is driven by two groups of mechanisms: spontaneous collapse and triggered collapse. To check which of these mechanisms is dominant and whether these processes can occur together within the same star forming region, astronomers use a technique called ammonia mapping observation. In general, the ammonia molecule has been used to probe the physical conditions in various stages of star formation, including pre-stellar cores, active star formation cores, filamentary structures and large-scale star formation surveys.An international team of astronomers led by Ross A. Burns of National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), has conducted radio frequency ammonia transition mapping observations of the S235 star-forming region. The goal of this observational campaign was to map the physical conditions of molecular gas in S235.S235, which belongs to the G174+2.5 giant molecular cloud, is the most active region of star formation in this cloud. It contains multiple dense gas cores that have been extensively studied using ammonia or carbon monosulfide molecular lines. S235 also includes a smaller region, designated S235AB, separated from the “main” body. Observations show that S235AB hosts a younger ionized hydrogen region known as S235A, and hosts very intense star formation indicated by high concentrations of young stellar objects (YSOs).However, although ammonia maps of S235 have been already made, they are dedicated to the well-known dense cores. So the research conducted by Burns’ team focuses mainly on the regions between and around the cores.”Via spectral analyses of main, hyperfine and multi-transitional ammonia lines, we explored the distribution of temperature and column density in the dense gas in the S235 and S235AB star-forming region,” the astronomers wrote in the paper.The main finding from the study was the presence of high-density gas in inter-core bridges that physically link dense molecular cores that house young proto-stellar clusters. The gas bridges apparently link the cluster-forming cores in the S235 region.According to the researchers, these bridges appear to be remnants of a fragmentation event that led to the formation of the present day cores from a larger parent cloud. They suppose that the fragmentation was likely driven by impact of the extended ionized hydrogen region to surrounding molecular cloud.”We conclude that the ammonia gas bridges found in S235 likely represent the hyper-critical remnants of CCC-induced [cloud-cloud collision] fragmentation of a gas cloud involving the C&C [“collect and collapse”] mechanism with likely contribution from the RDI [radiation driven implosion] process. Both processes contribute to the proliferation of triggered star formation, driven by the central HII [ionized hydrogen] region of S235.Summing up the results, the researchers added that there are generally two ammonia gas components in S235: old quiescent gas of low brightness temperature and younger, more active star-forming gas interacting with the ionized hydrogen region. They added that their study also identified strong water masers associated with star formation in S235AB and one of the cores of S235. Using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO), astronomers have investigated a massive star-forming region known as S235. The study resulted in detecting high-density gas in this region, which could be helpful in advancing the knowledge of star-formation mechanisms. The finding is detailed in a paper published August 2 on arXiv.org. Citation: Dense gas detected in intercore bridges in the S235 star-forming region (2019, August 12) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-08-dense-gas-intercore-bridges-s235.html © 2019 Science X Networklast_img read more

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Related Worlds biggest Britophiles revealed by Sk

first_img RelatedWorld’s biggest Britophiles revealed by SkyscannerWith British Tourism Week (15th-21st March 2010), Skyscanner reveals which of our foreign friends have the most love for the UK.Turning Staycationers into Vacationers: the global battle for international touristsThe global recession has led to an increasing trend for staycationsTurkey expecting recovery in tourism numbersTurkey expecting recovery in tourism numbers Skyscanner investigates which countries like to flash their cash the most when they travel – Germans in the lead, but China is hot on their trail.Skyscanner investigates which countries like to flash their cash the most when they travel – Germans in the lead, but China is hot on their trail.With the world economy apparently on the road to recovery, tourism will play a huge part in many countries’ income and competition is high to capture the biggest share of that market. International tourism is on track for a rebound with growth of 3-4% projected for 2010 – a welcome recovery after 2009’s slump.But when it comes to international travels, who spends the most and where should travel and tourism organisations be targeting their marketing budgets to attract the big spenders?At number one, it’s the Germans who spend over $90 billion a year on their travels, a disproportionate amount compared to their population which numbers just over 80 million, less than a third of the next biggest spenders – the USA, who splash $79.7 billion a year on holidays. Known for tipping big in restaurant and bars, Americans certainly know how to spend.In third place it’s the UK who splurge $68.5 billion to escape the UK on cheap flights each year. No doubt the lure of sun and sand plays a huge part in the mass exodus, with Spain by far our favourite holiday escape. This is also backed up by recent Skyscanner stats, with cheap flights to Malaga topping the most popular searched in January.France, which is also the world’s most popular country in terms of tourist arrivals, empty their wallets of $42.1 per year, whilst the Chinese spend $36.2 billion annually on their travels.China is part of a new force of international tourists. The country’s huge economic boom over the last decade has created a new middle class and with travel restrictions now a distant memory, more and more Chinese are taking advantage of their new found wealth and travelling the world – normally in tour groups.Italy, Japan, Canada, Russia and the Netherlands made up the rest of the ten big spenders list.Barry Smith, Skyscanner co-founder and business director commented:“It will be very interesting to see how tourist spending changes since the downturn. So far, the latest figures show that only the Japanese spent less on international tourism than the previous year. China is fast rising, spending 21% more on their global travels, and are likely set to grow even more. Meanwhile, it’s the Germans who remain the world’s biggest spending tourists, and there would have to be significant change for anyone else to catch up with them.”1. Germany – $91.0 billion (+2%)2. USA – $79.7 billion (+4.4%)3. UK – $68.5 billion (+4.4%)4. France – $43.1 billion (+9.6%)5. China – $36.2 billion (+21.4%)6. Italy – $30.8 billion (+4.9%)7. Japan – $27.9 billion (-7.9%)8. Canada – $26.9 billion (+8.4%)9. Russia – $24.9 billion (+11.8%)10. Netherlands – $21.7 billion (+9.2%)Amount spent on international tourism in USD (latest figures 2008), according to The World Tourism Organisation.ReturnOne wayMulti-cityFromAdd nearby airports ToAdd nearby airportsDepart14/08/2019Return21/08/2019Cabin Class & Travellers1 adult, EconomyDirect flights onlySearch flights Maplast_img read more

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Study finds elevated lung cancer risk after lung transplantation

first_imgDec 19 2018In an American Journal of Transplantation study, lung cancer risk was increased after lung transplantation, especially in the native (non-transplanted) lung of single lung transplant recipients.This was a large registry-linkage study that utilized matched transplant and cancer registry data from 17 US states/regions, including approximately 50 percent of US transplant recipients from 1987-2012. Researchers found that patients with a single lung transplant had a 13-fold increased risk of lung cancer in the native lung compared with similar persons without a lung transplant in the general population.Related StoriesTrends in colonoscopy rates not aligned with increase in early onset colorectal cancerStudy: Nearly a quarter of low-risk thyroid cancer patients receive more treatment than necessaryBacteria in the birth canal linked to lower risk of ovarian cancerRisk factors for the development of lung cancer in the native lung included those typically associated with lung cancer (older age, prior smoking, and pulmonary fibrosis), as well as longer time since transplantation. Compared with cases in the general population, lung cancers in transplant recipients were more frequently of a localized stage and were treated surgically; however, recipients had higher all-cause and cancer-specific mortality.”Lung cancer is the most common cancer (except for skin cancers) to arise after lung transplant, and this study is one of the first to quantify that risk, examine risk factors, and explore survival in the lung transplant population using a large national cohort,” said lead author Dr. Matthew Triplette, of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington, in Seattle. “These findings have important implications in understanding long-term risks among lung transplant recipients.” Source:https://newsroom.wiley.com/press-release/american-journal-transplantation/lung-transplant-patients-face-elevated-lung-cancer-ri read more

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New breakthrough study can impact drug development and personalized medicine

first_imgReviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Feb 6 2019A breakthrough for brain tumor drug development and personalized medicine published today in Nature Scientific Reports.24,000 patients are diagnosed with brain tumors every year with the 5yr survival for high grade glioblastomas (GBM) only 5%, with median survival of 15 months. These poor statistics have remained static for 30 years due in part to a lack of human-relevant preclinical models for testing new drugs. In addition, high levels of inter-individual cellular and molecular heterogeneity of disease means each patient has unique treatment requirements, however the rapid pace of disease progression allows little time for individual assessments.To address these challenges a multidisciplinary team of researchers in a public/private collaboration (MicroMatrices, Johns Hopkins University, the Mayo Clinic, and Perkin Elmer) have developed and evaluated a human induced pluripotent stem cell (IPSC) derived 3D organoid model for drug testing consisting of differentiated neurons and other non-neuronal brain cells (glial cells, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) grown alongside patient-derived glioblastoma tumor cells. Accurate drug efficacy measurements were facilitated through the use of a microTMA-based high throughput histology platform (SpheroMatricesTM).Related StoriesAn active brain and body associated with reduced risk of dementiaBordeaux University Hospital uses 3D printing to improve kidney tumor removal surgeryResearchers measure EEG-based brain responses for non-speech and speech sounds in childrenTo investigate the potential of this platform, two chemotherapeutic agents were tested: temozolomide (TMZ), the current front line treatment option for glioblastoma, and an experimental therapy doxorubicin (DOX).The study results indicated the system could predict a clinical response to TMZ and also demonstrated anti-tumor efficacy with DOX. Furthermore as the microTMA technology allows for multiplexing of different measurements, it was also observed that DOX acted via selective killing of tumor cells (apoptosis) with little or no effect on normal brain cells.This system can be adapted for use with publicly available libraries of glioblastoma patient-derived cell lines, paving the way for the creation of a more efficient discovery platform for new therapies, ultimately offering a more personalized approach by matching patients to therapies that are more likely to work clinically. In previous screens, the patient-derived cells were grown in immune-compromised mice, a model which cannot capitulate the environment of human tumors. By contrast, the organoid model system more closely mirrors a human-relevant microenvironment. In addition, the microTMA technology, by making multiple parallel measurements of efficacy end-points, produces quantitative data supporting mechanistic insights and informative biomarkers with greater potential to translate to the clinic.Simon Plummer CEO of MicroMatrices said ‘this breakthrough study illustrates how human relevant 3D models can make an impact for drug development and personalized medicine’. Source:http://www.micromatrices.com/last_img read more

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Nearsimultaneous ICU admissions may have adverse effect on patient outcomes

first_imgReviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Apr 10 2019A strain in ICU capacity has been linked to adverse patient outcomes. New research to be presented at CHEST Congress 2019 Thailand suggests that near-simultaneous ICU admissions are frequent and may also have an adverse effect on patient outcomes. Researchers conducted an observational study of patients admitted to an academic adult ICU of a tertiary medical center. Over the five-year period of the study, they found a correlation between the elapsed time between two consecutive admissions and mortality.Related StoriesAlmost 3 million deaths linked to low fruit and vegetable intake, warns studyIt is okay for women with lupus to get pregnant with proper care, says new studyAvoid ultra-processed food!Researchers examined 13,234 consecutive ICU admissions. A quarter of these admissions had an elapsed time between two consecutive admissions of less than 55 minutes. They found a “dose-dependent” and inverse relationship between the elapsed time between admissions and mortality. In summary, the shorter the interval between admissions, the higher the odds of death. Specifically, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of death gradually decreased by an additional average of 0.93 (95% CI 0.9?0.97, P=.001) for each log(unit) of time separating admissions.”This study shows that providing the same level of care during multiple admissions is difficult when patients of equal severity arrive at the same time. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and work towards ways to improve mechanisms, structures and processes to improve patient outcomes regardless of admission rates,” says Dr. Markos Kashiouris, lead researcher.Further results from this study will be shared at CHEST Congress 2019 in Bangkok on Friday, April 12, at 3:00 p.m., in the Exhibition Hall. The study abstract can be viewed on the journal CHEST® website. Source:http://www.chestnet.org/News/Press-Releases/2019/04/Nearlast_img read more

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Walmart reportedly eyes deal with insurer Humana

The newspaper said that the retail giant is in early talks with Humana, a major provider of Medicare Advantage coverage for people age 65 and older. Citing anonymous sources, the Journal said late Thursday that the companies are discussing a number of options, including an acquisition.Walmart would not comment on what it called “rumors and speculation.” Humana did not immediately return calls from The Associated Press.There have been a number of major health care deals announced in recent months as health insurers, pharmacy benefit managers and retailers like the drugstore chain CVS Health try to get more involved in customer care and potentially corral costs.Late last year, CVS announced a $69 billion bid to buy the health insurer Aetna. Another insurer, Cigna, agreed to pay $52 billion for pharmacy benefit manager Express Scripts Holding Corp. earlier this month. Humana and the nation’s biggest health insurance company, UnitedHealth Group Inc., also are working on deals that will give them a bigger hand in delivering or monitoring care.The online giant Amazon is working with billionaire Warren Buffett and JPMorgan Chase to create a company aimed at giving employees high-quality, affordable care.One major aim of these deals is to share patient data that will help monitor care and keep people healthy, especially those with chronic conditions who generate most of the health care spending in the United States. Some of the companies say they want to supplement the regular care a patient receives from a doctor by doing things like making sure people stay on their medicines or monitor blood sugar regularly.They also want to steer patients to clinics and urgent care centers and away from more expensive locations for care like emergency rooms.Walmart, the world’s largest retailer, runs about 4,700 pharmacies nationwide. It also has added health clinics to some of its stores.Walmart already partners with Humana to provide prescription drug coverage. If the companies combine, Humana will likely steer its Medicare Advantage patients to Walmart stores for help managing chronic conditions and other services, Leerink analyst Ana Gupte said in a Friday research note.Humana provides Medicare Advantage coverage for more than 3.3 million people. Those plans are privately run versions of the government’s Medicare program. Enrollment in that coverage has been growing for years, and that’s expected to continue as baby boomers age and become eligible. Walmart may be looking to dive deeper into the rapidly evolving health care market by acquiring the insurer Humana, according to The Wall Street Journal. Explore further Runaway costs prompt another big US health merger © 2018 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Walmart reportedly eyes deal with insurer Humana (2018, March 30) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-03-walmart-humana.html read more

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