Using silicon chips to trap ultracold atoms

first_img Explore further Citation: Using silicon chips to trap ultra-cold atoms (2006, June 26) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2006-06-silicon-chips-ultra-cold-atoms.html Ultra-cold atoms deliver cool research The long-term goal of Professor J. H. Thywissen’s physics lab at the University of Toronto is to be able to tailor a system with a Hamiltonian which simulates a high temperature superconductor.center_img “The idea,” Seth Aubin, a post-doctoral researcher in the group, tells PhysOrg.com “is to create your own Hamiltonian for the simulation.” The research at the University of Toronto, published May 28th in Nature Physics, simplifies and accelerates the efficient production of the ultra-cold fermion gases required for the quantum simulations of high temperature superconductors.“The idea of using a silicon chip is novel,” says Aubin. “It’s neat that we’re using these chips with lithographically printed wires. The wires can be used to get tighter traps. It’s the tightness that is important.” Aubin explains that tighter traps allow for a higher rate of collision between particles, as well as a higher re-thermalization rate. And this is important when one is dealing with trapping rare atoms for use in a simulation. The University of Toronto team, which includes Aubin and his professor Thywissen, along with S. Myrskog, M. H. T. Extavour, L. J. LeBlanc, D. McKay and A. Stummer, has created a more effective way to generate ultra-cold Fermi gas with the use of the tighter traps and an apparatus that is both more efficient and more compact: “Before,” explains Aubin, “one uses two connected vacuum chambers. We only use one. A typical time scale for the cycle is between 30 seconds and a minute and a half. We can do it in less than 30 seconds.” The tough part, he says, is evaporative, sympathetic cooling. Along with his collaborators, Aubin has demonstrated how to cut that part of the cycle down to six seconds.Using the tight magnetic trap, microfabricated on a silicon chip, Aubin and his colleagues can perform species-specific evaporative and sympathetic cooling on the trapped atoms. When the process is complete, the fermions can then be loaded into an optical lattice. The fermions represent the electrons in a Hamiltonian, and the optical lattice simulates a crystal lattice. Using the device, arrangements could be made in order to solve various Hamiltonians using the simulation.Aubin admits that while this particular system is usually faster, some non-magnetic traps have accomplished parts of the cycle more rapidly. “However,” he says, “those traps are better-suited for large numbers of atoms. We are working with rarer atoms. The other schemes are less efficient when it comes to using rare atoms.”While there are no immediate applications for the work, Aubin sees a promising future, about 10 years down the road, for physics devices as a result of the work with Fermi degenerate states on chips. Because multiple traps (on the micro level) could be loaded onto a single chip, it would be possible to create quantum systems that interact. This could be a boon for quantum information processing, more precise measuring apparatuses and interferometry. “Fermion interferometers,” explains Aubin, “are expected to provide significant improvement in measurement of both inertial and gravitational forces.” He also touts the usefulness of fermions in atomic clocks, making them more accurate.“Fermions are more accurate than bosons,” Aubin explains. “Degenerate boson gases or Bose-Einstein condensates turn out to be very precise but not very accurate. While a fermion would lose a little in precision—hardly anything at all, though—it would gain enormously on the accuracy.”Using this new ultra-cold fermion production technique will also simplify the study of dual species quantum gases, many-body atomic states, and emerging forms of superfluidity.By Miranda Marquit, Copyright 2006 PhysOrg.com. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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Study explains why soggy skin gets wrinkly but does not dissolve

first_imgImage credit: Wikipedia. Eczema treatment creams could make it worse Citation: Study explains why soggy skin gets wrinkly but does not dissolve (2011, March 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-03-soggy-skin-wrinkly-dissolve.html Myfanwy Evans, a mathematician at the Research School of Physics and Engineering at the Australian National University in Canberra, and her colleagues developed a stringy skin model to try to explain how the network of keratin fibers in the skin is arranged. Keratin is a fibrous protein also found in the nails and hair. Scientists already knew the keratin networks were important, but until now no one was certain of their structure.After a period in water the outer layer of the skin (the stratum corneum) expands, producing prune-like wrinkles. Earlier researchers suggested the stratum corneum expands as it absorbs water, but no one had yet explained why skin doesn’t fall apart when it has expanded.Keratin is known to prevent evaporation from the skin and to absorb water to help keep the skin hydrated. The stratum corneum layer also gives the skin its stretchy properties and the ability to spring back.Using computer modeling Evans approached the question from a geometric point of view to try to explain why skin maintains its structural rigidity after long exposure to water. She said the outer layer of skin contains a three-dimensional pattern of keratin fibers woven together to form a structure capable of acting like a sponge. The fibers are helical when dry but straighten out as water is absorbed, which allows the network to hold a greater volume of water. All the contacts between the keratin fibers remain intact throughout the expansion, and this makes the material structurally stable, Evans said.Evans, who has just completed her PhD, said after 24 hours submerged in water, the skin can suffer irreversible damage.Evans specializes in the study of gyroids, which are mathematical shapes first described by a NASA scientist, Alan Schoen in 1970. Since then, gyroids have been found in nature, such as in some butterflies, where light refracted through crystalline gyroids in the wings produce the vivid colors.Evans said an understanding of the geometry behind why skin wrinkles after too long in the bath could help scientists design materials with the properties of skin, able to stretch without losing strength. The paper will be published in the cross-disciplinary publication, the Journal of the Royal Society Interface. © 2010 PhysOrg.comcenter_img Explore further (PhysOrg.com) — A new study by mathematicians in Australia has explained how skin remains stable in water and does not dissolve, and why it wrinkles and remains a strong barrier even after absorbing large quantities of water. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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Researchers prove dogs are able to differentiate colors

first_img Explore further More information: Proceedings of the Royal Society B doi: 10.1098/rspb.2013.1356 For much of history, dogs have been assumed to be able to see only in black and white—their ability to differentiate between different colored objects was believed to be due to differences in brightness. In this new research, the team in Russia built on research recently conducted in the U.S. that found that dogs have two cones in their eyes suggesting they should have some ability to differentiate colors. Humans as most remember from grade school, have three cones, which allows for seeing all three primary colors. Since dogs have only two, they should be able to see some colors, but not others—blues, greens and yellows, for example, but not reds or oranges.To find out if dogs are in fact able to see colors and to distinguish between them, the team conducted a clever experiment. First they trained several dogs to respond to one of four different colored pieces of paper: light or dark yellow and light or dark blue (by putting paper pairs in front of feedboxes that contained meat.) The dogs soon learned that certain colors meant they were in for a treat.Next, using the same dogs that had been trained to respond to certain colors, the team placed pieces of paper with the color that they’d been taught to respond to in front of a feed box, along with another piece of paper that was brighter, but of a different color—a dog trained to respond to light blue for example would hopefully respond to dark blue instead of light yellow. The researchers found that a majority of the dogs went for the color identifier rather than brightness identifier most of the time, proving that they were able to distinguish color and were not relying on brightness to find their food treat.The researchers suggest their findings indicate that most animals with just two cones are likely able to differentiate between colors and thus it’s likely they respond in ways that have not been previously studied. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. A team of researchers in Russia has conducted a series of experiments that prove that dogs are able to distinguish between different colors. In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, the team describes the experiments with dogs they conducted and the results they found. © 2013 Phys.orgcenter_img Journal information: Proceedings of the Royal Society B A yellow labrador retriver dog with pink nose. Credit: Wikipedia. Citation: Researchers prove dogs are able to differentiate colors (2013, July 25) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-07-dogs-differentiate.html Dogs may understand human point of view, researcher findslast_img read more

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Researchers find magnetic state of atoms on graphene sheet impacted by substrate

first_img Unraveling atomic-scale edge structure of nanoscale graphene islands (Phys.org) —A team of researchers working in Switzerland with members from institutions in that country, the U.S. and Germany has found that the magnetic state of atoms placed on a graphene sheet are impacted by the type of metal substrate the graphene was grown on. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters, the researchers describe their research and suggest ways that their findings could be used in future computing devices. More information: Tailoring the Magnetism of Co Atoms on Graphene through Substrate Hybridization, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 177201 – Published 20 October 2014. dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.177201ABSTRACTWe determine the magnetic properties of individual Co atoms adsorbed on graphene (G) with x-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetic circular dichroism. The magnetic ground state of Co adatoms strongly depends on the choice of the metal substrate on which graphene is grown. Cobalt atoms on G/Ru(0001) feature exceptionally large orbital and spin moments, as well as an out-of-plane easy axis with large magnetic anisotropy. Conversely, the magnetic moments are strongly reduced for Co/G/Ir(111), and the magnetization is of the easy-plane type. We demonstrate how the Co magnetic properties, which ultimately depend on the degree of hybridization between the Co 3d orbitals and graphene π bands, can be tailored through the strength of the graphene-substrate coupling.via Nanotechweb (a) Normalized XAS spectra of Co atoms on G/Ru(0001) taken at normal and grazing incidence. The spectra are offset for clarity. (b) STM image of 0.008 ML Co on G/Ru(0001). Credit: Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 177201 Journal information: Physical Review Letters While studying cobalt atoms placed on a sheet of graphene, the researchers noted that it had a magnetization that was in-plane (across the sheet)—later they found that graphene that had been grown on a ruthenium substrate, resulted in the cobalt atom having a magnetism that was out-of-plane. This meant, they found after more testing, that the magnetization of atoms places on sheets of graphen are in general impacted by the type of metal that was used as the initial substrate. This finding may have implications for spintronic devices which rely on the spin states of atoms (in addition to charge) because it means that the magnetism can be customizable.In looking closer, the researchers found that the bonds that formed between carbon atoms and its substrate were weaker or stronger depending on the type of metal substrate used. When Ru was used, for example, strong bonds occurred, whereas when Ir or Pt were used, both exhibited extremely weak bonds. What this means, the researchers explain, is that the carbon atoms were closer or farther from the metal atoms, depending on the type of metal used, which in turn meant that the electrons that were transferred to or from the carbon were impacted as well. The end result is different types of graphene sheets being created.The question now is how long can the magnetic state last—if long enough, since they can be customized—it might lead to them being used as electronic storage media, with a single atom being used to represent a single bit of data (currently it takes approximately 107 atoms to store one bit on a hard-drive). Or they could perhaps be used to represent quantum bits. Because of that, the team has now set its sights on uncovering which single atoms hold their magnetic state the longest.center_img © 2014 Phys.org Explore further Citation: Researchers find magnetic state of atoms on graphene sheet impacted by substrate it’s grown on (2014, November 4) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-11-magnetic-state-atoms-graphene-sheet.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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Research team claims to have directly sampled electricfield vacuum fluctuations

first_img © 2015 Phys.org Scientists ‘squeeze’ light one particle at a time Theoretical physicists believe that empty space is not empty at all, instead it is filled with quantum particles that pop in and out of existence creating what are known as electric-field vacuum fluctuations. Prior research has led to efforts that have measured such fluctuations indirectly, but no one, until now, has claimed to be able to measure them directly.The experiment conducted by the team in Germany involved using a long pulse of light to study a shorter pulse of light by firing both through a crystal at the same time. The long pulse had a horizontal polarization while the shorter pulse had a vertical polarization. In such an arrangement, properties of the crystal are dependent on the electric field that exists inside of it, which in turn causes a change in the polarization of the beams that are fired into it and then emerge on the other side. The researchers adjusted the timing of the light pulses to map out fluctuations in the electric field. To offset vacuum fluctuations related to their own existence, they put in just the probe pulse—nothing else. When repeated many times, the researchers found the polarization varied slightly, which the researchers attributed to vacuum fluctuations. To be able to actually see what was going on, the team varied the width and duration of the pulses but not the number of photons in a given beam. They noted that the shot noise should have stayed constant as the pulse grew in size, but it did not, which the team claims was due to electric-field vacuum fluctuations.Not everyone is convinced—many in the field on reading the paper by the team were quick to point out that variations in the pulse could just as easily have come from something else. Clearly more work will have to be done before the claims made by the team are accepted by the physics community. Journal information: Science Citation: Research team claims to have directly sampled electric-field vacuum fluctuations (2015, October 2) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-10-team-sampled-electric-field-vacuum-fluctuations.html Explore furthercenter_img Vacuum fluctuations may be thought of as a flickering of the quantum light field even in total darkness. The positive (red) and negative (blue) regions are randomly distributed in space and they change constantly at high speed – similar to black-and-white noise on a TV screen with no signal input. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: “Direct Sampling of Electric-Field Vacuum Fluctuations.” Science. DOI: 10.1126/science.aac9788ABSTRACTThe ground state of quantum systems is characterized by zero-point motion. Those vacuum fluctuations are generally deemed an elusive phenomenon that manifests itself only indirectly. Here, we report direct detection of the vacuum fluctuations of electromagnetic radiation in free space. The ground-state electric field variance is found to be inversely proportional to the four-dimensional space-time volume sampled electro-optically with tightly focused few-femtosecond laser pulses. Sub-cycle temporal readout and nonlinear coupling far from resonance provide signals from purely virtual photons without amplification. Our findings enable an extreme time-domain approach to quantum physics with nondestructive access to the quantum state of light. Operating at multi-terahertz frequencies, such techniques might also allow time-resolved studies of intrinsic fluctuations of elementary excitations in condensed matter.Press release (Phys.org)—A team of researchers working at the University of Konstanz, in Germany is claiming to have directly sampled electric-field vacuum fluctuations, which would be the first ever made. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes an experiment they carried out and a part of it which they claim indicates that they have measured vacuum fluctuations directly for the first time.last_img read more

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Dense gas detected in intercore bridges in the S235 starforming region

first_img Explore further Evolution of magnetic field in the star-forming complex G9.62+0.19 revealed by ALMA More information: NH3 Observations of the S235 Star Forming Region: Dense Gas in Inter-core Bridges, arXiv:1908.00954. arxiv.org/pdf/1908.00954.pdf This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The first and second moment maps of ammonia in S235 and S235AB, shown left and right, respectively. Image credit: Burns et al., 2019. It is assumed that star formation is driven by two groups of mechanisms: spontaneous collapse and triggered collapse. To check which of these mechanisms is dominant and whether these processes can occur together within the same star forming region, astronomers use a technique called ammonia mapping observation. In general, the ammonia molecule has been used to probe the physical conditions in various stages of star formation, including pre-stellar cores, active star formation cores, filamentary structures and large-scale star formation surveys.An international team of astronomers led by Ross A. Burns of National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), has conducted radio frequency ammonia transition mapping observations of the S235 star-forming region. The goal of this observational campaign was to map the physical conditions of molecular gas in S235.S235, which belongs to the G174+2.5 giant molecular cloud, is the most active region of star formation in this cloud. It contains multiple dense gas cores that have been extensively studied using ammonia or carbon monosulfide molecular lines. S235 also includes a smaller region, designated S235AB, separated from the “main” body. Observations show that S235AB hosts a younger ionized hydrogen region known as S235A, and hosts very intense star formation indicated by high concentrations of young stellar objects (YSOs).However, although ammonia maps of S235 have been already made, they are dedicated to the well-known dense cores. So the research conducted by Burns’ team focuses mainly on the regions between and around the cores.”Via spectral analyses of main, hyperfine and multi-transitional ammonia lines, we explored the distribution of temperature and column density in the dense gas in the S235 and S235AB star-forming region,” the astronomers wrote in the paper.The main finding from the study was the presence of high-density gas in inter-core bridges that physically link dense molecular cores that house young proto-stellar clusters. The gas bridges apparently link the cluster-forming cores in the S235 region.According to the researchers, these bridges appear to be remnants of a fragmentation event that led to the formation of the present day cores from a larger parent cloud. They suppose that the fragmentation was likely driven by impact of the extended ionized hydrogen region to surrounding molecular cloud.”We conclude that the ammonia gas bridges found in S235 likely represent the hyper-critical remnants of CCC-induced [cloud-cloud collision] fragmentation of a gas cloud involving the C&C [“collect and collapse”] mechanism with likely contribution from the RDI [radiation driven implosion] process. Both processes contribute to the proliferation of triggered star formation, driven by the central HII [ionized hydrogen] region of S235.Summing up the results, the researchers added that there are generally two ammonia gas components in S235: old quiescent gas of low brightness temperature and younger, more active star-forming gas interacting with the ionized hydrogen region. They added that their study also identified strong water masers associated with star formation in S235AB and one of the cores of S235. Using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO), astronomers have investigated a massive star-forming region known as S235. The study resulted in detecting high-density gas in this region, which could be helpful in advancing the knowledge of star-formation mechanisms. The finding is detailed in a paper published August 2 on arXiv.org. Citation: Dense gas detected in intercore bridges in the S235 star-forming region (2019, August 12) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-08-dense-gas-intercore-bridges-s235.html © 2019 Science X Networklast_img read more

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What exactly can you call homeland

first_imgOne of Britain’s most talked about showcases of contemporary art, Homelands — that explores the relationship between the self and the place in a world of short-lived identities and contested geographies — will tour India from 22 January during the fifth India Art Fair in the Capital.The exhibition will be brought to India by the British Council, partnered by the India Art Fair, Kotak Mahindra and London-based auction house Christie’s, the auction house said Tuesday in a communique. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’It will open at the Indira Gandhi Centre for Arts (IGNCA) 22 January. The artworks, collected from British Council’s art repository, throw fresh light on contemporary British art by studying the idea of new Homelands that is made of conflicting histories of alienation, memory, adopted nations and migrations.Curated by Indian art historian Latika Gupta, it will host 80 works of 28 modern and contemporary artists.Of the 28 artists, eight are Turner Prize winners and nominees. They include George Shaw (nominee in 2011), Tim Hetherington was the winner of World Press Photo competition in 2007. Jeremy Deller (winner in 2004), Langlands and Bell (nominee in 2004), Grayson Perry (winner in 2003), Cornelia Parker (nominee in 1997), Gillian Wearing (winner in 1997), Mona Hatoum (nominee in 1995), Richard Long (winner in 1989). Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixHomelands will roll out a multi-layered programme to include public exhibitions in four major metros — artist talks, seminars, curator-led walks, outreach activities and workshops.The outreach programme will allow local partnerships by encouraging dialogue and collaboration between Indian and Britain institutions.Explaining the essence of the exhibition, curator Latika Gupta said: ‘Today, many of us move across national boundaries. We are born in one country, we make another our home. In the criss-crossing of political, social and cultural borders, we live our lives through hyphenated identities belonging here and there; inhabiting multiple places — both physical and metaphorical. ‘Geographies that can be mapped as international boundaries and as places conjured through remembering and imagining,’ she said. Gupta said the art works will try to question issues about ‘what constitutes a homeland’.‘Is it ethnicity, language, religion, customs and beliefs. Are homelands those in which our ancestors were born? What of outsiders who live and make other lands their homes? Where do we really belong? Where is it that we hope to one day return?’ Gupta asked. According to Gupta, the project was ‘exciting because it would introduce 28 emerging British artists to India and connect to tens of thousands of people, especially young people with the best contemporary art’.A spokesperson for British Council said the exhibition demonstrated the inter-cultural connection and the value of international collaboration with an Indian curator. It asks about the identity crisis that for so many of us that constitutes modern life, director of British Council-India, Rob Lynes said.last_img read more

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Mahatma Gandhis last fast captured in images

first_imgDid Mahatma Gandhi have a premonition about his death? A 20-panel exhibition on his final fast-unto-death indicates this was so.‘Who knows my ahimsa might be tested at the fag end of my life. A proverb says that a dying flame burns brighter before it burns out. May be, my end is approaching and I am fully prepared…,’ Mahatma Gandhi had said before going on fast on 12 January, 1948 against the communal riots sweeping the national capital.The exhibition at the Nehru National Museum and Library (NMML), inaugurated by Culture Minister Chandresh Kumari Katoch Wednesday to commemorate Mahatma Gandhi’s 65th death anniversary, looks at the fortnight leading to his assassination and the do-or-die crusade against the forces of parochialism and religious hate. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The 20 panels, ‘The Weapon of Ahimsa: Mahatma Gandhi’s Last Fast’, of text and visual prints mounted in the lobby of the library, present Gandhi’s itinerary in a chronological manner. The collection has 287 photographs and memorabilia – Yarvada Chakra, flag of Suraj and khadi textiles that portray the influence of Mahatma Gandhi in the daily lives of the Kallenbach.The collection has original copies of Young India and Harijan as well.Gandhi believed fasting was a spiritual act.last_img read more

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Cine Musique Radiomentale Night

first_imgRadiomentale showcased their style of creating new soundtracks for silent and classic experimental films in the city Wednesday evening. The electronic music, sound artist and DJ duo Jean-Yves Leloup and Eric Pajot got together in 1992, to bring this music form to the front stage. It is therefore, not surprising that Jean and Eric often are known as the pioneers of ‘cinemix’ which is an audiovisual performing practice popular in France.Jean-Yves Leloup, born in Paris, is a sound-artist, DJ, critic, journalist and a curator, specialising in electronic music, contemporary art and new technologies. Eric Pajot, born in Bourgogne is a visual artist, a musician and a DJ. The duo started their career in the mid 90’s with their own radio show by drawing on an eclectic range of audio sources, including sound experiments, movie soundtracks, ambient music, experimental and electronic music, natural sounds, fragment of interviews and human voice. Radiomentale is the outcome of that endeavor – but in a new, creative and innovative form! Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Organised by Alliance Francaise,  the Radiomentale performance in central Delhi on 26 June bought together an audience with majority of youngsters who enjoyed the cinemix show followed by a DJ mash up for about an hour adding to the mesmerized and lively ambience. The film screened in the evening for this cine-concert was a rework of The General (USA, 1927) film by Buster Keaton which made an interesting combination of an American film with French duo DJ’s  music. The film is an adventure-epic classic, comedy film. The  audience got to form a whole new perspective of watching mute films with the Radiomentale style of music. RadioMentale are on a six- city tour with this show and other cities on the list are – Bangalore, Trivandrum, Chennai, Pune and Mumbai. Their performances have also been witnessed in various international venues such as Palais de Tokyo in Paris, Centre Georges Pompidou, Kassel’s Documenta, Luxembourg Mudam, Paris Cité de la musique, Cartier Foundation and more.last_img read more

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King of Clubs

first_imgTell us a bit about the plans you have for the Delhi chapter of PangaeaI’m a firm believer that the bricks and mortar, including to a degree, design, have little do with an ultra-lounge or clubs’ success.  It’s all about the ‘Party’.  Who ever has the best party in a city,  gets all the fun people.  This is very nightclub class #101.  As for the design, we chose not to use  Pangaea’s tried and tested fully tented, African tribal theme.  Pangaea completely took New York, Miami, Spain, London, and Singapore, by storm.  In India, we are going with a highly opulent, fine art related theme, which is absolutely spectacular and I hope the uber wealthy Indians will appreciate.  Regardless of design, our philosophy and psychology that drive our brand and party will be no different than all other Pangaeas.  If something isn’t broken why fix it.Why use the name Pangaea?The super-continent of Pangaea is the ultimate primal, primitive beginning of the tectonic movement of the earth’s crust, that over millions of years shaped the continents and way of life we  know now.  I wanted to go back to the absolute roots of the world to remind me to go back to basics in developing and operating an ultra-lounge; service, drama, fantasy, escape, revelry, and ultra exclusivity.  It’s called the perfect party!What sort of clientele are we going to witness in Pangaea?Our clientele, or guests as we like to refer to them, have for 32 years always been the elite, super affluent, ridiculously famous, most fashionable and beautiful, including royal familiars and heads of state. The list of Pangaea guests of extreme fame is endless. The party crowd in Delhi is different from those across the world, what are the plans?People party, the world over, exactly the same.  The dynamics of why they go out, what they hope to find or achieve, the aspects of escape, fantasy, networking, meeting and greeting is universal.  Some countries have more highly developed nightlife scenes than others.  This is due to a vast range of pre-conditions, and a hierarchy of wants and needs.  We hope, if lucky, and with  your support, to be India’s first globally renowned club.  It all depends on whether you like, love it, or hate it.  At Pangaea, we don’t forget where our bread is buttered.last_img read more

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